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About This GigaPanToggle
- Taken by
- Explore score
- 3.22 Gigapixels
- Date added
- January 13, 2012
- Date taken
- August 09, 2011
The Inyo Crates are phreatic explosion pits, meaning that they were formed when rising magma encountered groundwater which caused the groundwater to vaporize and expand explosively. The surrounding volcaniclastic deposits lack volcanic material generated in the explosion, indicating a phreatic rather than magmatic origin for the explosion. Radiocarbon and tree ring dating of organic material in the deposits indicate that these craters were formed about 500 years ago. There are three phreatic craters in this region. The southernmost is shown here, with the rim of another visible in the center middle ground. A third lies atop Deer Mountain, the forested hill in the background and out of view to the left.
The Inyo Craters align with rhyolitic features of the Inyo Domes and Mono Domes. Alignment of these features indicates that they are all fed by a large northerly trending dike at depth. As magma from this dike nears the surface, it either erupts to form a volcanic feature such as the rhyolitic domes of the Inyo and Mono chains, or heats groundwater creating a phreatic explosion as seen here.
Several volcanic deposits can be seen in the northern wall of the crater in this image. The lowermost is a Pleistocene andesitic lava flow. Above the lava flow are at least three volcaniclastic deposits. The lowermost is a poorly sorted ash and lapilli deposit. In the middle is a more layered ash and lapilli deposits. These two have similar thickness and most easily visible units on the northern wall. The top layer is thin, only a few meters thick, and composed of light colored grey to white pumice lapilli.
Main references for this information are Sharp and Glazner, 1997, "Geology Underfoot in Death Valley and Owens Valley"; and Jessey, 2007, "Cenozoic/Mesozoic Volcanism of the Eastern Sierra Nevada" geology.csupomona.edu/docs/sierra.html
GigaPan Stitch version 1.0.0805 (Windows)
Panorama size: 3221 megapixels (80876 x 39832 pixels)
Input images: 714 (34 columns by 21 rows)
Field of view: 102.0 degrees wide by 50.2 degrees high (top=17.0, bottom=-33.2)
All default settings
Original image properties:
Camera make: PENTAX
Camera model: PENTAX K-r
Image size: 4288x2848 (12.2 megapixels)
Capture time: 2011-08-09 16:50:46 - 2011-08-09 17:39:19
Exposure time: 0.0025
Focal length (35mm equiv.): 390.0 mm
White balance: Fixed
Exposure mode: Manual
Horizontal overlap: 42.8 to 54.9 percent
Vertical overlap: 31.9 to 37.1 percent
Computer stats: 8098.69 MB RAM, 8 CPUs
Total time 3:09:27 (16 seconds per picture)
Alignment: 2:14:11, Projection: 19:05, Blending: 36:11
(Preview finished in 2:51:20)