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Soudan Banded Iron Formation by ahochstaedter

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About This Gigapan

Taken by
ahochstaedter ahochstaedter
Explore score
0.08 Gigapixels
Date added
Dec 16, 2011
Date taken
Oct 07, 2011

The late Archean (older than 2.5 billion years old) Soudan Banded Iron Formation is part of the Ely Greenstone Belt in northern Minnesota. This glacially scoured outcrop occurs in Soudan State Park, site of the oldest iron mine in Minnesota, which operated from 1884 to 1962.

The banding reflects differing concentrations of hematite (dark) and chert (light), which results from the precipitation of ferric Iron and Silica, respectively, from an ancient sea. These banded iron formations occur only in the Precambrian. Similar sediments are not being deposited today. Since the Iron is oxidized, these deposits are telling us something about the introduction of Oxygen into the Earth's atmosphere.

This outcrop is deformed by several genereations of folding as well as brittle demormation. In this image, the F2 folds are the most prominent with axial planes that trend from lower left to upper right and steeply plunging axes.

The main source for the information presented here is Jirsa and Green (2011, GSA field Guide 24, pp. 25-45)

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Stitcher Notes


GigaPan Stitch version 1.0.0805 (Windows)
Panorama size: 76 megapixels (11252 x 6756 pixels)
Input images: 9 (3 columns by 3 rows)
Field of view: 0.6 degrees wide by 0.4 degrees high (top=0.3, bottom=-0.1)
All default settings
Original image properties:
Camera make: PENTAX
Camera model: PENTAX K-r
Image size: 4288x2848 (12.2 megapixels)
Capture time: 2011-10-07 14:39:15 - 2011-10-07 14:39:39
Aperture: f/7.1
Exposure time: 0.00625
ISO: 200
Focal length (35mm equiv.): 82.0 mm
White balance: Fixed
Exposure mode: Manual
Horizontal overlap: 24.9 to 40.4 percent
Vertical overlap: 27.5 to 53.3 percent
Computer stats: 8098.69 MB RAM, 8 CPUs
Total time 3:55 (26 seconds per picture)
Alignment: 1:21, Projection: 43 seconds, Blending: 1:52
(Preview finished in 3:00)

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