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IN MEMORY OF EDGAR SNOW AN AMERICAN FRIEND OF THE CHINESE PEOPLE 埃德加●斯诺 之墓 by Lei Shi

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Lei Shi Lei Shi
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Jun 11, 2012
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Peking University (Traditional Chinese: 北京大学; Simplified Chinese: 北京大学; Pinyin: Běijīng Dàxué), colloquially known in Chinese as Beida (北大, Běidà), was established in 1898. It is regarded as one of the best and the most selective universities in China. Peking University is the first formally established university, and the first national university of China. The university policy has mandated the use of Peking University in English rather than Beijing University[citation needed] due to tradition and the desire to avoid confusion with Beijing Normal University and other similarly named institutions.

History
Peking University was established in Beijing in December 1898 during the Hundred Days Reform and was originally known as the Imperial University of Peking (Traditional Chinese: 京师大学堂; Simplified Chinese: 京师大学堂; Pinyin: jīng shī dà xué táng). In 1912, following the Xinhai Revolution, the Imperial University of Peking was renamed the National Peking University (国立北京大学). The famous scholar Cai Yuanpei was appointed president on January 4, 1917 and helped transform the university into the country's largest institution of higher learning, with 14 departments and an enrollment of more than 2,000 students. Cai, inspired by the German model of academic freedom, recruited an intellectually diverse faculty that included Hu Shih, Chen Duxiu, and Lu Xun. In 1919 students of Peking University formed the bulk of the protesters of the May Fourth Movement. Efforts by the Beiyang government to end to protests by sealing off the Peking University campus led to Cai's resignation. In 1920 Peking University became the second Chinese university to accept female students, after Nanjing University.

After the outbreak of the Second Sino-Japanese War in 1937 (and the resulting expansion of Japanese territorial control in east China), Peking University moved to Changsha and formed the Changsha Temporary University along with Tsinghua University and Nankai University. In 1938, the three schools moved again, this time to Kunming, and formed the National Southwestern United University. In 1946, after World War II, Peking University moved back to Beijing. At that time, the university comprised six schools (Arts, Science, Law, Medicine, Engineering, and Agriculture), and a research institute for humanities. The total student enrollment grew up to 3,000.

After the People's Republic of China was established in 1949, Yenching University was merged into Peking University and Peking University lost its "national" appellation to reflect the fact that all universities under the new socialist state would be public. In 1952 Peking University moved from downtown Beijing to the former Yenching campus.

In 2000, Beijing Medical University was merged into Peking University and became the Peking University Health Science Campus

[edit] Present
The Times World University Rankings in 2006 rated Peking University as the best university in Asia, and ranked 14th in the world, whilst the THES - QS World University Rankings[1] also ranked the university 14th in the world.

The entrance criterion of Peking University is extremely selective. Every year only the top students of each province across China can be admitted, which makes Peking University one of the most prestigious places for students all over China.

Peking University is a comprehensive and national key university. The University consists of 30 colleges and 12 departments, with 93 specialties for undergraduates, 2 specialties for the second Bachelor's degree, 199 specialties for Master's degree candidates and 173 specialties for Doctoral candidates. While in a leading postion of basic sciences research and teaching, the university has gained itself very successful development of applied sciences.

At present, Peking university has 216 research institutions and research centres, including 2 national engineering research centres, 81 key national disciplines, 12 national key laboratories. With eight million holdings, the university library is the largest of its kind in Asia.


The West GateThe university has made an effort to combine the research on fundamental scientific issues with the training of personnel with high level specialized knowledge and professional skill as demanded by the country's modernization. It strives not only for the simultaneous improvements in teaching and research work, but also for the promotion of interaction and mutual promotion among various subjects.

Teaching also has been emphasized. It aims to cultivate the students' practical ability and creative power. As a result, the teaching of core courses is strengthened, the content of courses is enriched and renewed and favourable conditions have been created, for the students to develop themselves in extracurricular activities.

Peking University has been becoming a center for teaching and research, consisting of diverse branches of learning such as pure and applied sciences, social sciences and the humanities, and sciences of management and education. Its aim is to rank among the world's best universities in the next couple of decades, with the school's leadership placing great emphasis on developing bilateral relationships with prominent American universities for student and faculty exchanges.

Campus
The campus of Peking University is located in northwest Beijing, in the Haidian district which was designated for universities.

It is located on the former site of Qing Dynasty royal gardens and retains Chinese-style landscaping as well as many traditional buildings. It is known throughout China, along with its neighbour Tsinghua University, for having one of the most beautiful campuses.

Beyond Peking University's main campus, Peking University Health Science Center (PKUHSC)'s campus is located in Xue Yuan Rd. where China's most distinguished colleges are located. PKUHSC's campus is less aesthetically appeasing but is nonetheless a fitting site for academics and research

International students
Peking University has one of the largest pools of international students in China. The dorms for international students are located at "Shao Yuan" (Shao Garden). Every year, Peking University has approximately 2000 international students on campus. Approximately 40% of the international students are Korean and the remaining 60% are made up of students from most countries in the world including most of Western Europe, North America, South America, all parts of Asia, Australia as well as many parts of Africa.[citation needed] The university is a member of Universitas 21, an international association of research-led universities.

北京大学创办于1898年,初名京师大学堂,是中国第一所国立综合性大学,也是当时中国最高教育行政机关。辛亥革命后,于1912年改为现名。
作为新文化运动的中心和“五四”运动的策源地,作为中国最早传播马克思主义和民主科学思想的发祥地,作为中国共产党最早的活动基地,北京大学为民族的振兴和解放、国家的建设和发展、社会的文明和进步做出了不可替代的贡献,在中国走向现代化的进程中起到了重要的先锋作用。爱国、进步、民主、科学的传统精神和勤奋、严谨、求实、创新的学风在这里生生不息、代代相传。
1917年,著名教育家蔡元培出任北京大学校长,他“循思想自由原则,取兼容并包主义”,对北京大学进行了卓有成效的改革,促进了思想解放和学术繁荣。陈独秀、李大钊、毛泽东以及鲁迅、胡适等一批杰出人才都曾在北京大学任职或任教。
1937年卢沟桥事变后,北京大学与清华大学、南开大学南迁长沙,共同组成长沙临时大学。不久,临时大学又迁到昆明,改称国立西南联合大学。抗日战争胜利后,北京大学于1946年10月在北平复学。
中华人民共和国成立后,全国高校于1952年进行院系调整,北京大学成为一所以文理基础教学和研究为主的综合性大学,为国家培养了大批人才。据不完全统计,北京大学的校友和教师有400多位两院院士,中国人文社科界有影响的人士相当多也出自北京大学。
改革开放以来,北京大学进入了一个前所未有的大发展、大建设的新时期,并成为国家“211工程”重点建设的两所大学之一。
1998年5月4日,北京大学百年校庆之际,国家主席江泽民在庆祝北京大学建校一百周年大会上发表讲话,发出了“为了实现现代化,我国要有若干所具有世界先进水平的一流大学”的号召。在国家的支持下,北京大学适时启动“创建世界一流大学计划”,从此,北京大学的历史翻开了新的一页。
2000年4月3日,北京大学与原北京医科大学合并,组建了新的北京大学。原北京医科大学的前身是国立北京医学专门学校,创建于1912年10月26日。20世纪三、四十年代,学校一度名为北平大学医学院,并于1946年7月并入北京大学。1952年在全国高校院系调整中,北京大学医学院脱离北京大学,独立为北京医学院。1985年更名为北京医科大学,1996年成为国家首批“211工程”重点支持的医科大学。两校合并进一步拓宽了北京大学的学科结构,为促进医学与人文社会科学及理科的结合,改革医学教育奠定了基础。
近年来,在“211工程”和“985工程”的支持下,北京大学进入了一个新的历史发展阶段,在学科建设、人才培养、师资队伍建设、教学科研等各方面都取得了显著成绩,为将北大建设成为世界一流大学奠定了坚实的基础。今天的北京大学已经成为国家培养高素质、创造性人才的摇篮、科学研究的前沿和知识创新的重要基地和国际交流的重要桥梁和窗口。
现任校党委书记朱善璐教授、校长周其凤院士。


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